Woodcrafted Woodworking Glossary: A Comprehensive Reference for Woodworkers

Welcome to our Woodworking Glossary, a comprehensive reference designed to help beginners and enthusiasts familiarize themselves with standard woodworking terms and jargon.

Whether you’re just starting your woodworking journey or looking to expand your knowledge, this glossary provides definitions and explanations of key terms used in woodworking.

Dive in and explore the rich vocabulary of woodworking!

The Woodworking Glossary

AAbrasiveA material, such as sandpaper or grinding wheels, used for smoothing, shaping, or polishing wood by removing small amounts of material.
Acrylic finishA type of finish that consists of acrylic resin dissolved in a solvent, providing a durable and protective coating for wood surfaces.
AdhesiveA substance, such as glue or epoxy, used to bond two or more surfaces together in woodworking projects.
Adjustable bevelA tool with a slotted blade and a thumbscrew mechanism that allows for easy adjustment of the blade angle, used for marking and transferring angles.
Adjustable mouthA feature on certain hand planes that allows the user to adjust the size of the opening in front of the blade, affecting the thickness of shavings taken.
AdzeA cutting tool with a curved blade used for shaping or smoothing concave or convex surfaces, typically used in timber framing or sculptural work.
AdzingThe process of using an adze, a hand tool with a curved blade, to shape or smooth wood surfaces.
Air-driedThe process of allowing wood to naturally dry and acclimate to its environment over time, typically by stacking and storing it in a well-ventilated area.
AnchoringThe process of securing a workpiece or tool in place to ensure stability and safety during woodworking operations.
Angle gaugeA measuring tool used to determine and set angles accurately, often used in woodworking for layout and joinery.
Apron planeA small hand plane typically used for smoothing or chamfering the edges of boards or components.
ApronA horizontal member beneath a tabletop or workbench that provides support and stability.
Arbor nutThe nut that secures the blade or cutting tool to the arbor of a power tool, such as a table saw or miter saw.
ArborThe shaft on a power tool, such as a table saw or miter saw, that holds the blade or cutting tool.
Architectural woodworkingThe specialized field of woodworking that involves creating custom woodwork for architectural applications, such as doors, windows, and moldings.
ArchitraveA decorative molding or trim that surrounds a door or window frame.
Auxiliary fenceAn additional fence attached to a table saw, router table, or other power tools to provide added support, accuracy, or safety.
BacksawA type of hand saw with a reinforced spine along the back of the blade for greater rigidity and precise cuts.
Ball peen hammerA hammer with a rounded end opposite the striking face, often used for shaping metal or driving small nails.
Band sawA power tool with a continuous looped blade used for making curved cuts in wood.
Bandsaw boxA small box or container made by cutting and shaping a single piece of wood on a bandsaw, often resulting in unique and artistic designs.
Bandy legsA term used to describe a piece of furniture or structure that has uneven or misaligned legs.
Bandy-leggedA term used to describe a piece of furniture or structure with legs that are splayed outward, resembling a bowlegged stance.
Bar clampA long, adjustable clamp with a sliding bar used for securing large workpieces or multiple pieces together during glue-ups or assembly.
Bark inclusionA natural defect in wood where bark becomes embedded or enclosed within the growth rings of a tree, potentially affecting the wood's stability.
Barrel nutA cylindrical nut with an internally threaded hole, often used in furniture assembly to provide a strong connection between two pieces.
BeadingA decorative molding or edge treatment consisting of a rounded or grooved profile, often used to add detail and visual interest to furniture or trim.
Beam compassA compass-like tool with adjustable arms used to draw or scribe large circles or arcs on wood surfaces.
Bench dogA cylindrical or peg-like device that fits into a bench dog hole on a workbench, providing a stop or clamping point for workpieces.
Bench hookA small wooden device with hooks and stops used to secure a workpiece to a workbench, providing stability during hand tool operations.
Bench planeA versatile hand plane used for flattening, smoothing, and shaping wood surfaces, typically available in different sizes for various tasks.
Bevel gaugeA measuring tool with an adjustable blade or stock used to determine and transfer angles, particularly for bevel cuts.
BevelAn angled cut or edge on a piece of wood.
Bird's eyeA figure or pattern found in wood characterized by small, swirling grain markings that resemble the eyes of birds.
Birdsmouth jointA type of joint commonly used in roof framing where a notch is cut into a rafter to fit securely onto the top plate of a wall.
Biscuit joinerA power tool specifically designed for cutting slots to create biscuit joints.
Biscuit joinerA power tool that cuts crescent-shaped slots in wood, allowing for the insertion of wooden biscuits to join pieces together.
Biscuit joineryA joinery technique that uses wooden biscuits (small, oval-shaped pieces) and glue to connect two pieces of wood together, providing alignment and additional strength.
Biscuit jointA method of joining two pieces of wood using oval-shaped wooden discs (biscuits) and adhesive.
Biscuit slot cutterA cutting tool specifically designed for creating slots for biscuits in woodworking joints.
BoringThe process of drilling or creating holes in wood using a drill bit or boring tool.
Bristle brushA brush with stiff bristles made from natural materials, such as boar hair, used for applying finishes or cleaning woodworking surfaces.
BungA small wooden or plastic plug used to fill or cover a hole or recess, often used in woodworking for concealing screws or dowels.
Burning-inThe technique of using a heated metal tool to create decorative burn marks or designs on wood surfaces.
BurnishingThe process of rubbing or polishing a wood surface with a hard, smooth object to create a polished finish.
Butt jointA basic woodworking joint where two pieces of wood are joined together at their ends or edges.
Buttress threadA type of thread commonly used in vices or clamps, characterized by a wider base and steeper incline, providing strength and stability.
Cabinet scraperA flat, rectangular tool with a burr edge used for smoothing wood surfaces by scraping off thin shavings.
CabinetryThe craft of designing, building, and installing cabinets, storage units, and furniture specifically tailored for storage purposes.
Carbide router bitA router bit with cutting edges made from carbide, a hard and durable material that maintains sharpness and longevity even when working with hard or abrasive materials.
Carbide-tipped bladeA saw blade with carbide cutting teeth, known for their durability and long-lasting sharpness, often used for cutting hard or abrasive materials.
Carbide-tippedRefers to a cutting tool, such as a saw blade or router bit, with a carbide tip for improved durability and longevity.
Carcase constructionThe assembly of the structural framework or carcass of a piece of furniture, typically made using joinery techniques such as mortise and tenon or dowel joints.
Carcass sawA fine-toothed hand saw used for making precise and controlled cuts in small or delicate workpieces.
CarcassThe framework or structure of a piece of furniture, typically made from solid wood or plywood, onto which other components are attached.
Carving gougeA chisel-like tool with a curved cutting edge used for carving and shaping concave or rounded surfaces in wood.
Center punchA tool with a pointed tip used to create a small indentation on a workpiece, providing a starting point for drilling or marking.
ChamferA beveled edge or cut made along the corner or edge of a piece of wood.
ChatterThe vibration or bouncing of a cutting tool, resulting in an uneven or rough surface.
Chip carvingA decorative carving technique that involves removing small chips of wood to create intricate patterns and designs.
Chip ejectionThe process of removing chips or waste material from the cutting area during woodworking operations, ensuring a clean and efficient cut.
ChipbreakerA component found in hand planes that helps control wood chip removal by breaking the chip as it is being cut.
ChiselA cutting tool with a sharp blade used for shaping or carving wood.
Clamping caulsLong, straight boards used in conjunction with clamps to distribute pressure evenly across a workpiece during glue-up.
Clear finishA transparent or semi-transparent coating applied to wood surfaces to enhance the natural grain and color while providing protection against moisture and wear.
Compass planeA specialized hand plane with a curved sole used for smoothing and shaping concave or convex surfaces.
Compressed air systemA system that provides compressed air for various woodworking operations, such as powering pneumatic tools or clearing debris from surfaces.
Cope and stick jointA common joint used in cabinetmaking and frame construction, where one piece has a groove (stick) and the other has a shaped profile (cope) that interlock.
CountersinkA conical-shaped cutting tool or drill bit used to create a recessed hole that allows a screw or fastener to sit flush with the surface of the wood.
Cross-laminated timber (CLT)A type of engineered wood product made by layering and bonding multiple layers of wood in alternating directions, providing strength and stability.
CrosscutA cut made across the grain of wood, perpendicular to the length of the board.
Crotch figureA unique grain pattern that occurs where a tree trunk branches into two or more separate limbs, resulting in a V-shaped figure.
Dado jointA joint created by cutting a rectangular groove or slot across the grain of a piece of wood, allowing another piece to fit into it.
Dado setA set of stacked blades used in a table saw to make wide, flat-bottomed grooves or dadoes in wood.
DadoA groove or channel cut across the grain of a piece of wood to accommodate another piece of wood.
Dapping blockA block of metal with rounded depressions used for forming or shaping metal sheets or wire in jewelry making or metalworking.
Depth stopA feature or accessory on a power tool, such as a drill or router, that allows the user to set a specific depth of cut.
DistressingThe intentional process of artificially aging or weathering wood to create an antique or rustic appearance.
Dog holeA hole or series of holes drilled into the surface of a workbench, used to hold and secure workpieces using bench dogs or other clamping accessories.
DollyA small wooden or metal block used as a backing support when hammering or shaping metal.
Domino jointerA specialized tool that cuts mortises and forms tenons for the Domino joinery system, allowing for quick and accurate joinery.
Dovetail jointA strong and decorative joint where interlocking wedge-shaped projections (tails and pins) are cut into the ends of two pieces of wood.
Dovetail jointA strong and durable joint made by interlocking trapezoidal-shaped pins and tails, commonly used in drawer and box construction.
Dovetail markerA precision marking tool with slanted edges used to accurately mark out the angles and spacing for dovetail joints.
Dovetail sawA small, fine-toothed hand saw specifically designed for cutting dovetail joints, known for its precision and ability to create clean and accurate cuts.
Dovetail sawA small, fine-toothed saw used specifically for cutting dovetail joints.
Dowel jointA joint made by aligning and inserting dowels into corresponding holes in two or more pieces of wood, providing a strong and aligned connection.
Dowel plateA plate or block with holes of various sizes used to shape or refine wooden dowels by forcing them through the holes.
DowelA cylindrical wooden pin used to join two pieces of wood together.
DowelingThe process of joining two pieces of wood together by inserting dowels into corresponding holes, creating a strong and aligned connection.
Drum sanderA large, stationary sanding machine with a rotating drum covered in abrasive material, used for sanding large surfaces or thicknessing wood.
Dust collectionThe system or setup used to capture and remove sawdust and debris generated during woodworking operations.
Dutchman jointA type of joint used to repair or patch a defect in wood, where a piece of wood is fitted into a recess or mortise to fill the damaged area.
DutchmanA small piece of wood, often contrasting in color or grain, used to patch or repair a defect in a larger wood surface.
Eased edgeThe process of rounding or chamfering the sharp edges of a workpiece, often for safety or aesthetic reasons.
EasingThe process of slightly rounding or smoothing the edges or corners of a piece of wood for improved safety and aesthetics.
Edge bandingThin strips of wood or synthetic material applied to the edges of plywood or other sheet goods to conceal the exposed layers.
Edge treatmentThe shaping or profiling of the edges of a piece of wood to create decorative or functional details, such as chamfers, roundovers, or ogees.
EdgerA hand tool used to create clean and crisp edges on wood surfaces.
Elbow greaseA colloquial term referring to physical effort or manual labor applied to woodworking tasks.
EllipseA geometric shape resembling a flattened circle, often used as a design element in furniture or as a guide for shaping curved wood pieces.
End capA decorative or protective covering placed at the end of a piece of wood or material to provide a finished look and protect against moisture or damage.
End grain sealerA specialized sealer or finish used to seal the exposed end grain of wood, preventing excessive absorption of moisture and reducing checking or splitting.
End grainThe exposed cut ends of wood fibers, typically more porous and absorbent than the face or edge grain, requiring special treatment and consideration.
End nipperA type of pliers with cutting jaws that meet at the tips, used for cutting or nipping small wire, nails, or other materials.
End viseA woodworking vise mounted on the end of a workbench, used for securing long or irregularly shaped workpieces during various tasks.
Epoxy fillerA two-part epoxy compound used to fill gaps, voids, or imperfections in wood surfaces before finishing or painting.
Epoxy fillerA two-part epoxy-based paste or putty used to fill gaps, voids, or imperfections in wood, providing a strong and durable repair or patch.
Epoxy resinA two-part adhesive system that consists of a resin and a hardener, commonly used for bonding, filling gaps, or creating transparent finishes on wood.
Exotic woodWood species that are not commonly found or native to the region where they are used, often prized for their unique appearance or characteristics.
Face grainThe surface of the wood that is parallel to the growth rings of the tree, typically providing a smoother appearance.
Face viseA type of woodworking vise attached to the front edge of a workbench, used to secure workpieces during various tasks.
Feather fileA file with parallel rows of teeth on one side and a smooth surface on the other, used for smoothing and shaping wood or metal.
Feather jointA type of joint where thin, overlapping wood strips are glued together to create a strong connection.
FeatherboardA device with thin, flexible fingers or feathers used to apply pressure and hold a workpiece against a fence or guide during cutting or routing operations.
Feathered edgeA smooth, tapered transition from a painted or finished surface to the bare wood, achieved by feathering the edges of the coating.
FeathersThin strips of wood used to fill gaps or spaces in joints or seams.
FenceA straight guide or barrier used to keep the workpiece aligned and provide support during cutting or routing operations, typically found on table saws and routers.
FigureThe unique pattern or markings in the grain of wood, such as curly, quilted, or spalted, which can enhance the visual appeal of a project.
Finger jointA joint where interlocking fingers are cut into the ends of two pieces of wood to create a strong connection.
Finger planeA small, handheld plane specifically designed for intricate or detailed work, such as shaping small curved surfaces or cleaning up joints.
FlexcutA brand of carving tools known for their ergonomic handles and high-quality blades, designed for ease of use and precision carving.
FlitchA stack of consecutive slices or boards cut from the same log, often used for matching grain patterns in woodworking projects.
FlitchA term used to describe a slice of wood that includes both the bark and the full width of the log, often used for veneer or decorative purposes.
Flush trim bitA router bit with a bearing at the tip used to trim or duplicate the edge of one workpiece to match another.
Forstner bitA specialized drill bit used for drilling flat-bottomed holes, often used for creating recesses or mortises.
French cleatA mounting system consisting of a beveled strip or bracket on the wall and a corresponding cleat on the back of a cabinet or other hanging object, providing secure and easily adjustable installation.
French polishA traditional finish technique where shellac is applied using a pad and rubbing motion to create a high-gloss, smooth surface on wood.
French polishA traditional method of applying a shellac finish to wood using a pad and friction.
FretworkIntricate decorative patterns or designs created by cutting or carving thin strips of wood, often used in ornamental woodworking.
Glue jointA joint made by bonding two or more pieces of wood together using adhesive, creating a strong and durable connection.
Glue squeeze-outExcess glue that is forced out of a joint when pressure is applied, typically removed before the glue dries to ensure a clean, finished appearance.
Glue-upThe process of joining multiple pieces of wood together using adhesive to create a larger panel or assembly.
Gooseneck scraperA specialized scraper tool with a curved shape, ideal for reaching and smoothing concave or curved surfaces.
Gouge chiselA carving chisel with a concave cutting edge, often used for removing material or shaping curved surfaces.
Gouge sweepThe curvature or arc of a gouge blade, categorized by a number indicating its radius or shape, such as U or V sweeps.
GougeA cutting tool with a curved blade used for carving or sculpting wood, often in a concave shape.
Grain directionThe orientation of the wood fibers within a piece of wood, including parallel grain, cross grain, or end grain, which affects the wood's strength and working properties.
Grain fillerA paste or compound used to fill the pores or open grain of wood, creating a smooth surface before applying a finish.
Grain orientationThe direction in which the wood fibers run within a piece of wood, which affects its strength, stability, and working properties.
GrainThe pattern or direction of wood fibers on a piece of wood.
Green woodWood that has recently been cut from a living tree and has not undergone any drying or seasoning process, typically containing a higher moisture content.
GritA measure of the coarseness or fineness of an abrasive material, typically expressed as a numerical value indicating the number of abrasive particles per square inch.
Gunstock carvingA specialized carving technique used to shape and embellish the stock of a firearm, combining functionality with decorative elements.
Hand drillA manual, non-powered drilling tool operated by hand pressure or a hand-cranked mechanism, used for drilling small holes.
Hand planeA tool used for shaping, smoothing, and leveling wood surfaces by shaving off thin layers.
Hand routerA handheld power tool with a rotating bit used for shaping, trimming, and routing wood.
Hand screw clampA type of clamp with adjustable wooden jaws and long threaded screws, designed for securing irregularly shaped or delicate workpieces.
Hand screw clampA versatile clamp with wooden jaws and large screws used to secure irregularly shaped or delicate workpieces.
HardboardA type of engineered wood product made from compressed wood fibers, commonly used for backing or as a smooth surface for painting.
HardwoodWood from deciduous trees, typically known for its density, durability, and rich color, such as oak, maple, or walnut.
HeartwoodThe inner, darker, and typically older part of a tree trunk, known for its increased strength and resistance to decay.
Heat gunA tool that blows hot air, used in woodworking for tasks such as removing paint, softening adhesives, or bending plastic materials.
Hide glueA traditional adhesive made from animal collagen that provides strong, reversible bonds and is often used in fine woodworking.
HobelspanA German term meaning plane shaving
Hook knifeA curved-blade knife used for carving or hollowing out concave shapes in wood, often used in spoon carving or sculpting.
Hybrid woodWood that has been infused or impregnated with a synthetic material, often resulting in enhanced durability and resistance to rot or decay.
Incised carvingA carving technique where lines or patterns are cut or engraved into the surface of wood, creating decorative textures or designs.
Inclination scaleA scale or gauge on a tool, such as a bandsaw or drill press, that indicates the angle or tilt of the cutting or drilling operation.
IncraA brand specializing in precision woodworking tools and measuring systems, particularly known for their precision fences, miter gauges, and router tables.
Infeed tableA support table or extension located in front of a power tool, such as a planer or jointer, to provide support for longer workpieces.
Infill materialThe material, such as wood or metal, used to fill the hollowed-out body of an infill plane for added weight and stability.
Infill planeA hand plane with a metal body filled with a separate infill material, such as wood or metal, for added stability and weight.
Inlay bandingDecorative strips or veneers made from contrasting materials, such as wood, metal, or shell, that are set into a recessed groove in the surface of a workpiece.
Inlay router bitA specialized router bit designed to cut precise recesses for inlay materials, such as wood, metal, or shell.
Inlay router kitA set of router bits and templates used to create precise recesses for inlay materials, allowing for intricate and decorative inlay work.
Inlay routerA specialized router with a bearing-guided bit used for creating recesses or channels for inlay materials in wood surfaces.
InlayDecorative material, such as wood, metal, or shell, set into a recess or groove in wood to create intricate patterns or designs.
InshaveA curved-bladed hand tool used for carving and shaping concave surfaces in woodworking.
Insulation tapeA self-adhesive tape used to protect the edges or surfaces of wood during finishing or painting to prevent paint or finish from bleeding.
Inverted routerA router that is mounted upside down in a router table, allowing the woodworker to guide the workpiece over the stationary router bit.
Inward grainA term used to describe wood grain that slopes toward the center of a piece of wood, typically found in burls or irregular growth patterns.
Japanese pull sawA type of saw with a thin, flexible blade that cuts on the pull stroke, known for its precision and clean cuts.
JigA device or tool used to guide a cutting or shaping operation, ensuring accuracy and repeatability.
JigsawA power tool with a reciprocating blade used for making curved or intricate cuts in wood.
Joiner's malletA heavy wooden or rubber-headed mallet used by woodworkers to strike chisels or drive joints together.
JoineryThe art or technique of joining or connecting wood pieces together to create a structure or assembly.
Kerf splitterA thin piece of material inserted into the kerf of a workpiece to prevent binding or kickback during cutting operations.
Kerf widthThe thickness of the slot or groove made by a saw blade during cutting, often measured to determine the appropriate size for joinery or fitting.
KerfThe width of the cut made by a saw blade.
KerfboardA board or strip of wood placed in the kerf of a cut or saw kerf to prevent binding or pinching of the saw blade during the cutting process.
Kerfing planeA specialized hand plane used for creating thin kerfs or grooves in wood.
KerfingMaking a series of closely spaced cuts along a piece of wood to allow it to bend or curve more easily.
Kickback pawlsSafety devices on a table saw that prevent kickback by gripping the wood and stopping its backward movement.
KickbackThe sudden and forceful backward movement of a workpiece caused by the spinning blade or cutting tool catching or binding.
Kiln-driedWood that has been dried in a controlled environment, typically in a kiln, to reduce moisture content and stabilize the wood for woodworking purposes.
KnotA portion of a branch or limb that becomes enclosed in a piece of wood as it grows, often characterized by a circular pattern and harder texture.
Kreg jigA specialized tool used for creating pocket holes, allowing for hidden and secure joinery in woodworking projects.
Laminated woodA type of wood made by bonding together thin layers or veneers using adhesive, creating a strong and stable composite material.
Laminated woodWood composed of thin layers or veneers glued together, creating a stronger and more stable material.
Lamination pressA device or machine used to apply even pressure and heat to laminated or veneered panels, ensuring proper adhesion and flatness.
LaminationThe process of gluing together multiple layers of wood to create a thicker, stronger, or more stable piece of material.
Lathe chuck keyA wrench-like tool used to tighten or loosen the jaws of a lathe chuck, allowing for secure gripping of the workpiece.
Lathe chuckA device attached to a lathe spindle used to hold and secure the workpiece during woodturning operations.
Live centerA rotating center attachment used in woodturning that supports the workpiece while allowing it to spin freely on a lathe.
Live edgeThe natural, untrimmed edge of a piece of wood that retains the original shape and characteristics of the tree it came from.
Lock miter jointA type of joint that uses angled cuts to create a strong and secure connection between two pieces of wood, often used in box or frame construction.
Log cabin chinkingThe process of filling the gaps or joints between logs in a log cabin with chinking material, such as mortar, cement, or specialized sealants, to provide insulation and weatherproofing.
Log cabin jointA traditional corner joint used in log cabin construction, where notches are cut into the logs to interlock and provide stability.
LuthierA craftsman or artisan who specializes in the construction and repair of stringed musical instruments, such as guitars or violins.
Luthier's raspA specialized rasp designed specifically for shaping and smoothing wood surfaces in instrument making and repair.
MarquetryThe art of creating decorative designs or patterns on wood surfaces using different colored veneers.
Milling machineA power tool or machine used for shaping or cutting wood, metal, or other materials with rotary cutters or milling bits.
MillingThe process of shaping, cutting, or preparing wood using specialized machinery, such as a jointer, planer, or milling machine.
Miter gaugeA device used to guide and hold workpieces at various angles for accurate miter cuts on a table saw or other power tools.
Miter jointA joint formed by joining two pieces of wood at a 45-degree angle to create a right angle.
Miter lock jointA type of joint often used in picture frames, where the mitered corners are reinforced with splines or other mechanical fasteners to provide strength and stability.
Moisture contentThe amount of water or moisture present in wood, measured as a percentage of the wood's weight.
Mold release agentA substance applied to a mold or surface before casting resin or other materials to prevent them from sticking and aid in easy removal.
MoldingsDecorative trim or profiles made of wood used to enhance the appearance of furniture, cabinetry, or architectural elements.
Mortise and tenonA traditional joint where a projecting tenon on one piece of wood fits into a corresponding hole (mortise) on another piece.
Mortise chiselA chisel with a thick, square-shaped blade used for cutting rectangular recesses or mortises in wood for joinery.
Mortise gaugeA marking tool with two adjustable pins or cutters used to accurately scribe the outline of a mortise on a workpiece.
NapThe texture or pile of a fabric, such as sandpaper or a paint roller cover, that affects the surface finish or material removal rate.
OffcutA leftover or discarded piece of wood or material from a larger project or cutting operation.
OilstoneA type of sharpening stone made from natural or synthetic abrasive materials, typically used with oil as a lubricant for sharpening blades or tools.
Olive oil finishA natural finish for wood that involves applying olive oil to enhance the grain and provide a lustrous appearance.
Open-grain woodWood with large, visible pores, such as oak or mahogany, often requiring grain filler for a smooth finish.
Outboard turningWoodturning performed on the end or outer section of a workpiece, typically requiring the use of a specialized attachment or lathe configuration.
Outfeed rollerA roller or series of rollers positioned at the outfeed end of a table saw or other power tool to support and guide the workpiece as it exits the machine.
Outfeed tableA flat, extended surface positioned behind a power tool, such as a table saw or planer, to support and catch the workpiece as it exits the machine.
Overarm dust collectionA dust collection system on a table saw or router table that collects dust and debris directly from above the cutting area.
OverhangThe distance that a component, such as a shelf or countertop, extends beyond its support or framework.
Panel gaugeA marking tool with a long beam and an adjustable marking pin or cutter, used to mark lines parallel to the edge of a workpiece.
Panel raising bitA router bit with a profiled cutting edge specifically designed for shaping the edges of panels, typically used in cabinetmaking.
Panel raisingThe process of shaping the edge of a panel or door to create a decorative profile, often done using a router or table saw.
Panel sawA large, long-handled saw used for making straight cuts in large panels or sheets of wood.
Paraffin waxA wax-like material used as a lubricant or protective coating on woodworking tools and surfaces to reduce friction and prevent rust.
Parallel clampsHeavy-duty clamps with parallel jaws that remain parallel when tightened, providing even pressure distribution and stability during glue-ups.
ParquetryA decorative technique where small, geometric wood pieces are arranged to create intricate patterns or designs on a larger surface.
PeeningA process used to reshape or flatten the edge of a tool, such as a chisel or axe, by striking it with a hammer or peening tool.
Pen blankA small, rectangular piece of wood, acrylic, or other material used for turning pens or other small projects on a lathe.
Pen turningThe process of turning small wooden blanks on a lathe to create pens, pencils, or other writing instruments, often using specialized pen-turning kits.
Penetrating oil finishA type of finish that penetrates the wood fibers, enhancing the natural beauty and providing a low sheen, matte appearance.
PergolaAn outdoor structure consisting of vertical posts or columns supporting an open lattice or crossbeam roof, often used for shade or as a garden feature.
Picture frame clampA clamp designed specifically for gluing and clamping picture frames together, ensuring squareness and alignment during assembly.
Picture frame moldingDecorative molding used to create frames for artwork, mirrors, or photographs.
Pilot holeA small hole drilled into wood before driving a screw or fastener, providing a guide for the screw and reducing the risk of splitting the wood.
PitchThe angle or slope of the teeth on a saw blade or other cutting tool, determining the aggressiveness and efficiency of the cutting action.
PithThe central, softer portion of a tree trunk, often avoided or removed in woodworking due to its instability.
Plunge routerA router with a base that allows the bit to be lowered or plunged into the workpiece, enabling cutting or shaping in the middle of a surface.
Power feederA device or attachment used on power tools, such as a table saw or jointer, to provide consistent and controlled feeding of the workpiece.
Push stickA safety tool used to push wood through a table saw or other power tools, keeping hands a safe distance from the blade.
PyrographyThe art of decorating wood by burning designs or patterns using a heated tool, also known as woodburning.
QuartersawnWood that is cut from a log at an angle of 45 degrees or more to the growth rings, resulting in a straight grain pattern and increased stability.
RabbetA notch or groove cut along the edge or end of a piece of wood to allow for another piece to fit into it.
RailA horizontal member of a frame, often used in furniture construction, such as the horizontal pieces of a door or the top and bottom rails of a cabinet.
Raised panelA decorative panel commonly used in cabinet doors, where the center section is raised to add depth and visual interest.
Rasp fileA coarse file or shaping tool with raised teeth or ridges used for rough shaping and rapid material removal in woodworking.
Rasp planeA specialized plane with a roughened surface, typically equipped with a removable rasp, used for shaping or smoothing curved surfaces.
RaspA coarse cutting tool with raised teeth used for shaping and smoothing wood, typically made of metal or abrasive material.
Reclaimed woodWood salvaged from old structures, such as barns or buildings, and repurposed for use in woodworking projects.
Relief carvingA carving technique where material is selectively removed from the surface of a wood piece to create a three-dimensional design or pattern.
Relief cutA shallow cut made in wood to release tension or stress, often used to prevent splitting or warping during drying or shaping.
Resaw capacityThe maximum height or thickness of wood that a bandsaw or other cutting tool can effectively resaw or cut into thinner pieces.
Resaw fenceA tall, auxiliary fence attached to a bandsaw that helps guide and support the workpiece when resawing thick boards into thinner slices.
ResawingThe process of cutting a board or piece of wood along its thickness to create thinner slices or veneers.
Resin castingThe process of pouring liquid resin into a mold to create solid, transparent, or colored objects, often used for decorative inlays.
Resin fillerA compound or mixture used to fill knots, cracks, or voids in wood, typically made with epoxy resin and wood dust or filler material.
Resin infusionA technique used in woodworking and other industries where resin is drawn or forced into a composite material, such as wood or fiberglass, through vacuum pressure.
Rip cutA cut made along the length of a piece of wood, parallel to the grain.
Riving knifeA safety device on a table saw positioned behind the blade to prevent wood from pinching or binding during cutting.
Riving knifeA safety device on a table saw that prevents the workpiece from pinching or binding against the back of the blade, reducing the risk of kickback.
RivingThe act of splitting or cleaving wood along the grain using wedges, mallets, or specialized tools, often employed in traditional woodworking or timber framing.
Router sledA sled-like device used in conjunction with a router to flatten large or irregularly shaped pieces of wood.
Router tableA stationary platform with a mounted router used to guide and control the tool for precise shaping, cutting, and profiling operations.
RouterA power tool used to hollow out or shape wood using a rotating bit.
Sanding blockA tool used to hold sandpaper and provide a flat surface for hand sanding.
Sanding sealerA thin coat of finish applied to wood before sanding to seal the surface and provide a smoother finish.
Sash clampA long bar clamp with adjustable jaws used for clamping large workpieces or multiple pieces together during glue-ups.
Sash crampA large, adjustable clamp used for securing larger workpieces or assemblies during glue-ups or woodworking operations.
Saw kerfThe width of the cut made by a saw blade, often used to determine the amount of material removed during cutting.
SawhorseA sturdy frame or support used to hold wood during cutting or assembly.
ScorpA curved-handled hand tool with a blade shaped like a shallow gouge, used for hollowing out or shaping curved surfaces in woodworking.
Scraper planeA hand plane with a specially shaped sole and blade designed for smoothing surfaces by scraping off thin shavings.
Scraper planeA specialized hand plane with a scraping blade instead of a cutting blade, used for smoothing and removing fine shavings from wood surfaces.
Scratch stockA small, handheld tool with a profiled cutter used for creating custom moldings, decorative edges, or grooves in wood.
Scratch stockA small, handheld tool with a thin, replaceable blade used for creating custom moldings or decorative profiles on wood surfaces.
ScribeThe act of marking or scoring a line along a workpiece to indicate where it needs to be cut, shaped, or joined.
Scroll sawA power tool with a fine, narrow blade used for intricate and detailed cutting in wood.
Segmented turningA technique in woodturning where multiple pieces of wood are glued together in various configurations to create intricate patterns or designs.
ShellacA natural resin-based finish that is typically dissolved in alcohol and used to provide a protective and glossy surface on wood.
SilhouetteA decorative or ornamental profile or outline, often used in scrollwork or fretwork designs.
Skew angleThe angle at which the cutting edge of a skew chisel or skew plane is ground, affecting its cutting properties and versatility.
Skew chiselA chisel with a beveled cutting edge set at an angle to the tool's body, used for fine detail work and clean cuts.
Sloyd knifeA specific type of knife used in traditional Scandinavian woodworking, featuring a narrow, curved blade and a wooden handle, ideal for carving and shaping wood.
Soft-close hingeA type of hinge that slows down the closing action of a cabinet door, preventing it from slamming shut.
SoftwoodWood from coniferous trees (e.g., pine, cedar, spruce) that is typically lighter, less dense, and easier to work with than hardwood.
Spindle gougeA type of gouge specifically designed for turning spindles on a lathe, with a shallow flute and steeply angled bevel.
Spindle sanderA power tool with a rotating drum covered in sandpaper used for sanding curved or irregular surfaces.
Spindle sanderA stationary sanding machine with a rotating spindle and sanding sleeves of various sizes, used for smoothing and shaping curved surfaces.
SpindleA cylindrical rod or turned piece used as a decorative element in furniture or as a support in a staircase.
SplineA thin strip of wood inserted into a groove or slot to strengthen a joint or provide alignment.
SpokeshaveA hand tool with a curved blade and handles used for shaping and smoothing concave or convex surfaces, such as chair spindles or curved components.
SpurA pointed projection or device on a drill bit or auger used to help guide and stabilize the tool during drilling.
Square holeA precisely cut hole with four equal sides, often created using a mortising chisel and mallet.
StileA vertical framing member, typically found in doors, cabinet doors, or paneling, forming the sides of the frame or structure.
Tack hammerA small hammer with a magnetized face used for driving small tacks or brads into wood without the need for additional tools.
Tambour doorA flexible door made of interconnected slats or strips that roll up and disappear into a cabinet or piece of furniture, often used in roll-top desks or cabinets.
TangThe portion of a chisel, file, or other tool that extends into the handle, providing a secure connection.
Tapered legA table or furniture leg that gradually narrows in width from top to bottom, often adding an elegant touch to the design.
Tear-outSplintering or roughness of wood fibers that occurs when cutting or planing against the grain, resulting in a less smooth surface.
Template guideA guide or collar that attaches to a router base, allowing the router bit to follow a template or pattern, ensuring accurate and consistent cuts.
Template routingA technique where a router is guided along a template or pattern to shape or replicate the same profile on multiple workpieces.
TemplateA pattern or guide used to replicate a specific shape or design onto multiple workpieces, ensuring consistency and accuracy.
Tenon sawA fine-toothed hand saw with a stiffened back and a narrow blade, used for making precise cuts in joinery and tenon joints.
Tenon shoulderThe flat or square surface of a tenon joint that provides support and strength by bearing against the corresponding surface of the mortise.
Threaded insertA metal fastener with internal threads used to provide a secure and durable connection in wood.
Threaded rodA long, cylindrical rod with threads along its length, often used in woodworking for fastening or reinforcing joints.
Throat depthThe distance between the blade or cutting edge and the vertical support structure on a bandsaw, scrollsaw, or coping saw.
Throat plateA removable insert on a table saw or other power tools that surrounds the blade, reducing tear-out and providing support.
Through dovetailA type of dovetail joint where the pins and tails extend all the way through the workpiece, providing strength and visual appeal.
Through tenonA type of tenon that extends completely through a piece of wood, often used in joinery for strength and visual appeal.
Trammel pointsAdjustable points used to draw large circles or arcs on wood surfaces, often used in conjunction with a router or compass.
TruingThe process of ensuring that a surface or edge is perfectly flat, level, or square, often achieved through planing, sanding, or jointing.
Tung oilA natural oil derived from the seeds of the tung tree, used as a finish for wood to enhance its appearance, provide water resistance, and protect against wear and tear.
Turning blankA block or piece of wood used for woodturning on a lathe to create cylindrical or rounded objects, such as bowls or spindles.
Turning chiselsA set of specialized chisels used for woodturning on a lathe, with various shapes and profiles for different cutting tasks.
TurningThe process of shaping wood on a lathe to create rounded or cylindrical objects, such as bowls, spindles, or table legs.
Undercut sawA specialized saw with a narrow blade that allows cutting into tight spaces or making precise cuts without damaging surrounding material.
UndercutA technique where material is removed from the underside or backside of a wood component to create a recessed or decorative detail.
UndercuttingThe process of removing material from underneath or behind a surface, often used to create a recess or relief in carving or joinery.
Upside-down routerA router that is mounted to a router table with the bit facing upwards, allowing the workpiece to be passed over the bit for shaping or profiling.
Urethane finishA type of protective finish that contains urethane resins and offers excellent durability and resistance to water and chemicals.
V-grooveA groove or channel with a V-shaped profile often created using a V-groove router bit or a table saw.
V-toolA carving tool with a V-shaped cutting edge, used for creating fine lines, lettering, or decorative grooves in wood.
Vacuum clampA clamping system that uses suction to secure workpieces, typically used for holding flat or non-porous materials during machining or assembly.
Vacuum pressA system that uses vacuum pressure to apply even pressure and adhesion between layers of veneer, laminates, or other materials.
VarnishA transparent or translucent finish composed of resins and oils, often used to provide protection and enhance the natural beauty of wood.
Veneer hammerA specialized hammer with a wide, flat head used for pressing and smoothing veneer onto a substrate during veneering.
Veneer pressA device or machine used to apply even pressure and adhesive to thin wood veneer sheets, ensuring proper adhesion to a substrate.
Veneer sawA small, fine-toothed saw designed for cutting delicate veneer sheets or trimming edges during veneering projects.
VeneerA thin layer of wood applied to the surface of another wood to enhance its appearance.
Weathered woodWood that has been intentionally or naturally aged or weathered, resulting in a rustic appearance with worn texture and grayish coloration.
WeatheringThe natural process of wood's exposure to the elements, resulting in changes in appearance and color over time.
WhetstoneA sharpening stone used for honing and sharpening the cutting edges of tools such as chisels, plane blades, or knives.
Whisker biscuitA small, round disc with bristles or whiskers used in archery and woodworking as an arrow rest or guide for cutting or routing channels.
WhiskerA small, thin shaving or splinter of wood that protrudes from a surface after planing, indicating an area that requires further smoothing.
WhittlingThe process of shaping or carving wood by removing thin shavings or small chips using a knife or other hand tools.
Winding sticksA pair of straight, narrow wooden boards used to detect and correct twists or warping in lumber or workpieces.
Wipe-on finishA type of wood finish, often oil-based, that is applied by wiping it onto the wood surface using a cloth or brush.
Wood conditionerA pre-stain treatment applied to porous wood surfaces to promote even absorption of stain or finish, reducing blotching or uneven coloration.
Wood grain fillerA paste or compound used to fill the pores of open-grained wood before applying a finish.
Wood moisture meterA handheld device used to measure the moisture content of wood, helping determine its suitability for various woodworking processes.
Woodburning toolA heated tool with interchangeable tips used for creating detailed designs or patterns by burning them onto wood surfaces.
WoodburningThe technique of using a heated metal tool, called a woodburning pen, to create decorative patterns or designs by burning into wood.
Wooden planeA hand tool used for shaping or smoothing wood surfaces, consisting of a wooden body with an adjustable blade or iron.
Woodturning chuckA specialized chuck or jaw system used to secure and hold workpieces on a lathe during woodturning operations, providing stability and versatility.
WoodturningThe process of shaping a spinning piece of wood on a lathe to create symmetrical, cylindrical, or sculptural forms.
Woodworker's benchA specialized workbench designed with features and vises tailored for woodworking tasks, such as cutting, planing, and joinery.
Woodworking viceA clamping device attached to a workbench, used to hold and secure workpieces during various woodworking operations.
Woodworking viseA bench vise designed specifically for woodworking applications, typically featuring large, flat jaws and a quick-release mechanism for secure clamping.
Workbench holdfastA clamping device that holds a workpiece securely in place on a workbench using downward pressure.
Workbench viceA clamping device attached to a workbench to hold and secure workpieces during various woodworking tasks.
WorkbenchA sturdy table-like surface used for woodworking projects, assembly, and repairs.
Workpiece hold-downA device or clamp used to secure a workpiece in place, ensuring stability and safety during cutting or shaping operations.
Workpiece orientationThe position or alignment of a workpiece in relation to a tool or operation, such as face up, face down, or edge against a fence.
Workpiece orientationThe specific arrangement or position of a workpiece in relation to the woodworking tools or operations being performed.
Workpiece registrationThe process of aligning and positioning a workpiece accurately in relation to a tool or cutting operation for precise and consistent results.
Workpiece sledA sled-like device used in conjunction with a table saw or router table to safely and accurately cut or shape workpieces.
Workpiece stopA device or block used to position and hold a workpiece in a specific location during cutting, drilling, or shaping operations.
Workpiece supportA device, attachment, or mechanism used to provide additional support and stability to a workpiece during cutting or shaping operations.
WorkpieceThe piece of wood being worked on or shaped during a woodworking project.
Workshop ventilationThe process of maintaining proper airflow and air quality in a woodworking workshop, often achieved through the use of fans, air filtration systems, or dust collection systems.
Yew woodA dense, durable, and fine-grained wood obtained from yew trees, often used in decorative woodworking and turnery.
Z-sawA specialized Japanese saw with a flexible blade and a distinctive Z-shaped tooth pattern, ideal for precise and smooth cuts.
ZebrawoodAn exotic hardwood with a distinct striped appearance, characterized by dark brown to black stripes against a pale yellow or golden background.
Zero clearance throat plateA throat plate or insert for a table saw or router table that is customized to closely fit around the cutting tool, reducing tear-out and improving cutting precision.
Zero-clearance insertA removable throat plate or insert for a table saw that provides a close fit around the blade, reducing tear-out and improving cutting precision.
Zero-offset bladeA table saw blade with teeth that are precisely aligned with the blade's body, reducing the risk of binding and improving cutting accuracy.
Zirconia sandpaperA type of abrasive material made with zirconia alumina, known for its durability and long-lasting performance in sanding wood and other materials.
Zirconium oxide sandpaperA type of abrasive paper or cloth that utilizes zirconium oxide as the primary abrasive material, known for its durability and resistance to heat.
ZiricoteA dense, exotic hardwood known for its striking appearance, featuring dark brown to black streaks and a highly figured grain pattern.
Zona sawA brand known for their range of precision saws and cutting tools, suitable for various woodworking and craft applications.
BBack bevelA secondary bevel on the backside of a chisel or plane blade, used to enhance cutting performance and reduce tear-out.
CC-clampA type of clamp shaped like the letter C used to hold two pieces of wood together during glue-up or assembly.
DDado bladeA specialized circular saw blade designed for making wide, flat-bottomed grooves or dadoes in wood.
EEar protectionSafety equipment, such as earmuffs or earplugs, used to protect the ears from excessive noise produced during woodworking operations.
FFace frameA frame typically made of solid wood attached to the front of cabinet boxes, providing support and a decorative element.
GGlue brushA brush with stiff bristles used for applying glue to woodworking joints or surfaces.
HHalf-lap jointA joint where half the thickness of each piece is removed, allowing them to overlap and create a flush, strong connection.
IIncannel gougeA carving gouge with a concave or inwardly curved cutting edge, used for shaping the concave surfaces of wood.
JJanka hardness ratingA standardized measure of the hardness of different wood species, indicating their resistance to denting and wear.
KKerf bendingA technique where a series of closely spaced cuts, or kerfs, are made on one side of a wood piece to facilitate bending.
LLaminated veneer lumber (LVL)An engineered wood product made by layering thin wood veneers and bonding them with adhesive to create strong and stable structural members.
MMalletA hammer-like tool with a large head, typically made of wood or rubber, used to strike chisels or drive wooden joints.
NNailerA power tool or pneumatic device used to drive nails into wood quickly and efficiently.
OOblong holeA hole with elongated or oval shape, typically used to accommodate wood movement in joinery or fastening applications.
PPadaukA type of hardwood known for its vibrant reddish-orange color often used in furniture and cabinetry.
QQuarter sawingA method of cutting logs into quarters and then slicing them to create boards with vertical grain orientation, resulting in increased stability and distinctive figuring.
RRabbet jointA joint created by cutting a groove or recess along the edge of a workpiece to allow another piece to fit into it, typically used in cabinetry and box-making.
SSaddle jointA type of joint where two pieces of wood are joined together at a right angle, resembling the shape of a saddle.
TTack clothA sticky cloth used to remove dust and fine particles from wood surfaces before applying finishes, ensuring a clean and smooth finish.
UUltraviolet (UV) resistanceThe ability of a finish or wood treatment to withstand the damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation from sunlight, reducing fading or degradation.
VV-groove bitA router bit with a V-shaped cutting edge used for creating decorative V-grooves or chamfers on the edges of wood or panels.
WWainscotingDecorative wood paneling applied to the lower portion of a wall, typically extending to chair rail height or higher.
XX-braceA diagonal brace or support in the form of an X used to add stability and strength to a structure
YYardstickA measuring tool typically one yard (or three feet) in length, used for general measurement and layout tasks in woodworking.
ZZ-axisIn woodworking CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machines, the Z-axis refers to the vertical axis of movement, controlling the up-and-down motion of the cutting tool.

Why Use a Woodworking Glossary?

Like any specialized field, woodworking comes with its terminology. Understanding these terms is essential for effective communication, learning, and navigating the world of woodworking.

Whether reading project plans, following tutorials, or seeking advice from fellow woodworkers, having a solid grasp of woodworking terminology will enhance your understanding and confidence in the craft.

Our woodworking glossary is a valuable resource to bridge the gap between technical jargon and practical knowledge.

How to Use the Woodworking Glossary

The Woodworking Glossary is designed to be user-friendly and accessible. You can easily navigate through the glossary using the alphabetical table layout.

Scroll or use the search function to find the term you want. Each term is accompanied by a clear and concise definition, providing a quick reference point.

We hope this Woodworking Glossary proves to be a valuable resource as you explore the world of woodworking. By familiarizing yourself with the terminology used in this craft, you’ll gain confidence in discussing woodworking techniques.